The vagus nerve originates from our brain and supplies various organs, including the heart, gut, mouth, and face, regulating our blood pressure, heart rate, and other internal organ functions. It also takes feedback from these organs and informs the brain of their well-being or ill state. In this article, we will discuss the crucial role of the vagus nerve in an infant's emotional development and how we can regulate it to strengthen our baby's emotional and social health.
Nurturing calm: understanding the development of the vagus nerve in infants
Tiny troubles: factors behind a low vagal tone
Navigating nerves: assessment of your child's vagus activity
Heart to heart: ways to foster healthy vagus nerve activity in infants
Vagus nerve and its development
The autonomic nervous system controls important physiological functions, such as breathing, feeding, and maintaining normal body temperature. This system also regulates heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions and connects the brain to the heart, face, and gut via the vagus nerve. This way, the brain knows what's going on in the various organs of our body, and the vagus nerve can respond to these 'inputs.' It develops in the fetus during the last trimester of the pregnancy and continues growing for the first year of life.
Vagus nerve role in emotional behavior
The vagus nerve is one of the primary drivers of this autonomic nervous system, thereby modulating emotional behavior and social interactions. It plays numerous roles in regulating your infant's social gestures, facial expressions, mouth, and throat muscles for sucking, swallowing, making sounds, and breathing.
Effects of vagus nerve activity on infants
The activity of the vagus nerve, known as the 'vagal tone,' has been shown to impact:
- Growth and development
- Brain maturation
- Mood and temperament
- Feeding and gut motility
- Response to different foods
Hence, it plays a vital role in the overall development of the infant’s growth and personality. Many studies also suggest that infants with higher vagal activity acquire better social skills where the infant can interact more appropriately with their surroundings. This includes recognizing faces, social smiling, laughing, being consolable to a loved one's touch and voice, sharing toys, and giving hugs. Hence, good vagus nerve activity is essential for positive emotional and mental balance. The vagus nerve is also responsible for facial expression and, therefore, linked to the development of interpersonal skills.
Causes of low vagal tone
One of the reasons in premature infants is that the covering of the vagus nerve (known as myelin) is not well developed, and, therefore, premature infants may have poor vagus nerve activity.
Additionally, lower vagus nerve activity has been observed in depressed individuals as well as children with autism. Studies showed that infants born to prenatally depressed mothers tend to have lower vagal tone. Chronic stress can also lead to low vagal tone.
How can you assess your child’s vagus nerve activity?
Many parents and caregivers may come across this question and would like to assess their infant's vagal tone. Unfortunately, there is no way to directly measure your infant's vagus nerve activity. However, an individual's heart rate changes with breathing, and external activity could be an indirect marker for vagal tone activity. This is also known as heart rate variability.
Individuals with high vagal tone have lower heart rates and increased heart rate variability, which suggests greater resilience to stress and better emotional regulation. This can be difficult to assess at home, so please consult your medical provider for further information, as there are other factors that may influence heart rate variability.
Tips for improving your infant's vagus nerve activity
There are various methods to strengthen your infant's vagus nerve activity:
- Creating a safe and comforting environment for the baby.
- Breastfeeding allows bonding between mother and infant, and may improve the vagal tone of the baby.
- Kangaroo care refers to holding a naked or partially dressed baby on the caregiver’s bare chest (usually, the mother’s), allowing continuous skin-to-skin contact. This method has been shown to benefit the maturation of vagal activity in preterm infants.
- Playing with toys may provide external stimulation, particularly sensory or tactile stimulation, that might positively influence the vagal tone.
- Massage therapy — a study published in the Journal of Pediatrics showed that preterm infants receiving moderate-pressure massage therapy were noted to have increased vagal tone, better weight gain, and improved gastric motility.
In conclusion, the vagus nerve plays a crucial role in the emotional and social development of infants. A healthy environment around your baby, breastfeeding, early skin-to-skin contact, and massage therapy are potential ways to improve your child’s vagal tone.
Vagus nerve activity correlates with an infant's temperament and emotional behavior.
Infants with greater vagus nerve activity (also known as 'vagal tone') are more likely to be expressive and interactive with their surroundings and, overall, have better social skills.
Lower vagus nerve activity was noted in premature infants who did not gain weight adequately, infants of depressed mothers, lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and children with autism.
Several vagus nerve stimulation techniques, such as massage therapy and kangaroo care, may be beneficial for an infants emotional and social well-being.
- Infant Behavior and Development. Vagal activity, early growth and emotional development.
- The Journal of Pediatrics. Vagal activity, gastric motility, and weight gain in massaged preterm neonates.
- JMIR Research Protocols. Autonomic nervous system maturation and emotional coordination in interactions of preterm and full-term infants with their parents: protocol for a multimethod study.
- Infant and Child Development. The early development of the autonomic nervous system provides a neural platform for social behavior: a polyvagal perspective.
- Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. Infant vagal tone and maternal nepressive symptoms: a bottom-up perspective.
- Infant Behavior and Development. Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn.
- Child Development. Vagal regulation in breastfeeding infants and their mothers.
- Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. Skin-to-skin contact (kangaroo care) accelerates autonomic and neurobehavioural maturation in preterm infants.