Is it possible to be allergic to the titanium metal in dental implants? Will people with metal sensitivities respond well to implant placement, or will the implant fail? Should alternatives like ceramic or zirconia implants be used instead?
People with metal allergies typically do well with titanium dental implants.
Alternative implant materials such as ceramic are always an option if the visible metal is a concern.
There is little to no risk of an allergic reaction to titanium.
Titanium is highly biocompatible and hypoallergenic, making it useful for multiple medical procedures.
Can I be allergic to titanium dental implants?
Unless you physically react to precious metals such as 14-carat gold or sterling silver, you likely won’t have to worry about being allergic to dental implants. It is extremely rare to have a titanium allergy, but clinical experts have documented isolated, rare situations where the patient was, in fact, allergic to titanium products. That being said, titanium allergy risks are extremely low, and clinical evidence of it happening in dental patients is quite weak.
While it is scientifically impossible to say that no one is allergic to titanium dental implants, there will always be isolated instances where deductive reasoning rules out all other possible causes. Even then, a titanium implant allergy is so rare that it’s — practically speaking — safe to say that most dentists will never see it in their careers of caring for patients.
What is the most common allergy in dentistry?
Allergic reactions in dental offices are one reason why your oral health provider will want to collect a comprehensive, updated medical history at the time of your appointment. Many types of dental materials and equipment have known irritants for people with specific allergies.
Here are just a few examples:
- Latex and rubber. These are found in exam gloves, nitrous oxide nosepieces, rubber dams, etc.
- Local anesthetic. Some people experience allergic reactions to certain types of numbing medications.
- Egg allergies. This can make it unsafe to use certain types of nitrous oxide (“laughing gas”).
- Nickel or tin. These are just some metals found in alloys that make up silver “amalgam” dental fillings.
Additionally, certain flavors in a mouth rinse, fluoride, polish, or topical agents could contain known allergens for people with specific food or flavor allergies, like sensitivity to cinnamon, for example.
Regardless of whether you feel it’s important to make your dentist aware of a random allergy, you should. While minor side effects like contact dermatitis may occur, more serious conditions such as allergic or anaphylactic reactions may be severely life-threatening in certain individuals.
Are there side effects from titanium?
The evidence regarding titanium dental implant allergies is so limited and weak that many providers fail to see a positive correlation between metal allergies and a sensitivity to titanium implants.
Medical experts regard titanium to be so safe and biocompatible that it’s frequently used for a variety of surgeries. Titanium is extremely common for orthopedic surgeries, such as joint replacements in the shoulder, hip, elbow, and knee. It’s also used in pacemakers, bone-conducting hearing aids, and spinal fusion purposes.
The natural side effect of titanium is that it triggers an “osseointegration” process in the bone immediately surrounding it. Because the bone structures recognize titanium as a friendly material, new bone cells grow and fuse onto the surface of the implant, cementing it into place with the adjacent bone.
Osseointegration is what makes titanium dental implants and surgical procedures so successful, as they fuse with the body and become a permanent part of your anatomy. The osseointegration process takes approximately three to six months after dental implant installation, depending on health factors and the home care of the patient.
What to do if I am allergic to titanium?
Most people do not have a known allergy to titanium, as special testing is required. Even those with known metal allergies typically do not have reactions to titanium because of its high biocompatibility and hypoallergenic nature. That being said, experts do recommend that people who are sensitive to metals receive long-term clinical maintenance with dental X-rays to monitor their oral health status after a dental implant is installed.
If you know beyond a doubt that you have a specific allergy to titanium, discuss alternatives such as zirconia or ceramic dental implant designs with your oral health provider. The thing is, ceramic and zirconia also contain certain types of metals, so you’re still not receiving a 100% metal-free dental implant. If your goal is to avoid any and all metals at all costs, then a dental implant may not be right for you.
Dental implant risks
The greatest risk to dental implants and implant patients isn’t a metal allergy; it’s peri-implantitis. This infection is an implant-specific form of gum disease caused by plaque bacteria and inadequate home care. Unfortunately, peri-implantitis is the leading cause of implant failure and rejection. The good news is that with proper brushing, flossing, and ongoing maintenance, you can preserve your dental implant for as long as a lifetime.
If you are highly sensitive to metals, such as certain types of jewelry (particularly those made out of non-precious metal), be sure to communicate this with your dentist. The good news is that titanium is still extremely safe, even if you’re sensitive to certain types of metal materials or have a highly sensitive immune system.
However, if you are still concerned about possible biocompatibility or reactions after the implant is installed, you always have the option of requesting an alternative restoration to replace your missing tooth. Be sure to discuss your concerns with your dentist to determine the best course of care for your specific circumstances and health history.
- Materials. Titanium Allergy Caused by Dental Implants: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Report.
- Clinical Implant Dentistry. Is Titanium Sensitivity Associated with Allergic Reactions in Patients with Dental Implants? A Systematic Review.
- Clinical Oral Implants Research. Titanium allergy: could it affect dental implant integration?