If a fetus does not turn head-down at around the 37th week of gestation, a procedure known as an external cephalic version (ECV) may be recommended by an obstetrician.
An external cephalic version (ECV) is a procedure performed by an obstetrician that attempts to externally turn a fetus into a head-down position.
ECV procedures are usually performed in the hospital setting and may require pain-relieving medication.
About 60% of ECV procedures are successful. The potential benefits of an ECV outweigh the risks.
If an ECV fails, it is likely that the baby will be delivered by a scheduled cesarean section.
The risks of having an ECV may include preterm labor, prematurely breaking the water, detachment of the placenta from the uterus (placental abruption), and changes in the baby’s heart rate.
The procedure attempts to externally rotate the position of the fetus to avoid the need for a cesarean section or breech vaginal delivery. Is an ECV worth the risks? This article explains what you need to know about the risks and benefits of an ECV.
When is an external cephalic version (ECV) recommended?
The majority of babies turn head-down by the 37th week of gestation. Head-down is the safest position for vaginal deliveries because as the baby’s head pushes through the cervix, it makes way for the shoulders and the rest of the body. If a baby comes out feet first or bottom first, there is a risk of the shoulders or head getting stuck, which is a medical emergency.
By the 37th week of gestation, if the baby has not turned naturally to a head-down position, an obstetrician may recommend an ECV procedure. If an ECV is not possible, it is likely that a cesarean section will be scheduled.
Breech vaginal deliveries may be a possibility depending on the maternal and fetal risk factors, potential complications, and the size of the baby.
How is an ECV performed?
To reposition the baby, the doctor will strategically externally push on the abdomen to attempt to get the baby to flip over. This abdominal pushing can cause discomfort, and pain-relieving medication may be offered.
Where is an ECV performed?
An ECV is usually performed in the hospital setting. In the event of complications and an emergency cesarean section is needed, the operating room should be nearby.
What are the risks?
ECVs are successful in turning the baby about 60% of the time. Although rare, there are risks associated with an ECV that may result in an emergency cesarean section or harm to the mother or baby. These risks may include the following:
- Placental abruption. Part of the placenta separates from the uterus, causing potential hemorrhaging and significant blood loss of the mother and baby.
- Premature rupture of membranes. The amniotic sac bursts or tears, breaking the water too soon.
- Premature labor. Contractions of the uterus begin, putting the mother in labor.
- Changes in the baby’s heart rate. Increase or decrease in fetal heart rate.
What happens if an ECV is not successful?
Studies have shown that over half of ECV procedures are successful in turning the fetus without complications. If the ECV fails, the obstetrician will discuss the next options available. Many breech babies end up being delivered by a scheduled cesarean section. Some may have the option to attempt a breech vaginal delivery.
Since ECVs are successful over half of the time, and serious risks are rare, attempting an ECV may prevent the need for a cesarean section and allow for a healthy vaginal delivery.
What can cause a breech baby?
Having multiples (twins, etc.), abnormal amounts of amniotic fluid (too much or too little), uterine fibroids, and preterm babies are potential reasons a baby is breech. The reasons for a breech positioning are not always known.
How do I know if my baby is breech?
Fetal ultrasound is the best way to confirm if a baby is breech. Your doctor may be able to feel the position of the baby by pushing on your abdomen.
Which is riskier, a breech delivery or a cesarean section?
Breech deliveries have been found to have more risks than cesarean sections.
If I have already had a breech baby, will my next baby be breech too?
Women who have already had a breech baby are at higher risk of having another breech baby.
- StatPearls. External cephalic version.
- BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Fetal heart rate abnormalities during and after external cephalic version: Which fetuses are at risk and how are they delivered?
- The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. If your baby is breech.
- The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Changes during pregnancy.