Sciatica is characterized by pain that radiates along the path of the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down through the hips, buttocks, and legs. It can be a debilitating condition that affects daily activities and overall quality of life. However, there are several stretches that can help ease sciatica and provide much-needed relief.
Sciatica can be debilitating and prevent you from living your life to the fullest.
Sciatica usually diminishes after a few weeks with proper treatment — providing there isn't a serious underlying cause.
There are many different stretches you can do to alleviate and improve sciatica.
If the pain gets worse or persists, it's recommended to speak to a healthcare professional to diagnose the exact cause of the pain.
Symptoms of sciatica vary and can include mild or sharp shooting pain, numbness, tingling, or a dull persistent ache in the affected leg.
In this article, we will explore common causes of sciatica and discover 10 effective stretches to alleviate the pain associated with it.
What is the sciatic nerve?
Among the many nerves in the human body, the sciatic nerve is the longest and thickest — it's about as thick as an adult thumb at its widest point. Beginning in the spinal cord nerve roots of the low back (lumbar region), the sciatic nerve branches into two nerves and runs all the way through the buttocks and hips, down the back of the thighs, into the lower legs, and the feet.
The sciatic nerve creates an essential connection from our central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) to the motor and sensory functions of the lower extremities. Sciatica tends to affect one side and can be experienced at any area along the path of the nerve.
Common causes of sciatica
As shown in Figure #1, sciatica has different causes, including:
- A herniated disc. A herniated disc occurs when the center of a spinal disc protrudes through a crack in the outer layer, placing pressure on the adjacent nerve roots, including those that create the sciatic nerve.
- Spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal, leading to nerve root compression.
- Degenerative disc disease. Degenerative disc disease is a condition that occurs as the discs between the vertebrae break down with age, potentially leading to nerve root compression.
- Piriformis syndrome. Piriformis syndrome occurs when the piriformis muscle, located deep in the buttocks, irritates or compresses the sciatic nerve.
Who is most at risk of sciatica?
While anyone can experience sciatica, certain factors may increase the risk of development, including:
- Age. Age-related changes affecting the spine mean that people over the age of 30 are more likely to develop sciatica.
- Certain occupations. Jobs that involve prolonged sitting, heavy lifting, or repetitive twisting motions can contribute to the development of sciatic pain.
- Obesity. Excess weight places extra stress on the spine and spinal cord.
- Diabetes. This condition can affect the nerves and lead to sciatica.
10 exercise routines to ease sciatic pain
Stretching exercises can relieve pressure on the sciatic nerve and promote flexibility and strength in the surrounding muscles. Here are 10 stretches you can do at home that may help ease the pain caused by sciatica:
1. Piriformis stretch
- Lie on your back with both knees bent
- Cross the one leg over the opposite knee
- Hold the back of thigh of the supporting leg and pull it toward your chest until you feel a stretch in the buttocks
- Repeat on the other side
2. Knee-to-chest stretch
- Lie on your back and bring one knee to your chest
- Use your hands to pull it closer
- Hold for 20-30 seconds and repeat with the other leg
3. Hamstring stretch
- Lie on your back and lift one leg straight up, keeping the knee slightly bent
- Use a towel or strap to gently pull the leg toward you until you feel a stretch in the back of the thigh
- Hold for 20-30 seconds and switch legs
4. Standing forward bend
- Stand with your feet hip-width apart
- Slowly bend forward, reaching toward your toes
- Allow your upper body to hang loosely and feel the stretch in your hamstrings and lower back
5. Child's pose
- Start on all fours and then slowly recline back onto your heels while reaching your arms forward
- Rest your forehead on the floor and feel the stretch in your lower back and buttocks
6. Cat-cow stretch
- Start on all fours with a neutral spine.
- Inhale and arch your back up toward the ceiling (cat pose)
- Exhale and lower your belly and lift your chest (cow pose)
- Repeat the movement slowly for several repetitions
7. Spinal Twist
- Lie on your back and bring your knees in and up toward your chest
- Extend your arms out to the sides in a T-shape
- Slowly lower your legs to one side and make sure to keep your shoulders grounded
- Hold for 20-30 seconds and switch sides
8. Seated figure-four stretch
- Sit on a chair and cross one leg over the opposite knee
- Gently press down on the knee until you feel a stretch in the buttocks
- Breathe deeply for 20 seconds
- Repeat on the other side
9. Standing calf stretch
- Stand facing a wall with your arms extended and hands on the wall
- Extend one leg behind you, keeping it straight and the heel on the ground
- Lean forward until you feel a stretch in the calf of the extended leg
- Repeat on the other side
10. Bridge pose
- Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the ground
- Lift your hips off the ground, creating a bridge shape with your body
- Try to make one diagonal line with your torso and knees in line
- Hold for a few seconds and slowly lower your back down
- Repeat for 2 or 3 reps
Always get medical advice before beginning a new workout regimen, particularly if you experience severe or persistent sciatica discomfort. These stretches should be carried out gently and within a painless range of motion.
Sciatica can be quite uncomfortable and make regular activities difficult. However, daily stretching exercises can offer relief. When incorporated into a regular movement practice, these ten stretches may reduce sciatic pain, improve flexibility, and enhance overall well-being. Remember to pay attention to your body, move slowly, and ask for help if you need it.
- The BMJ. Diagnosis and treatment of sciatica.
- The New England Journal of Medicine. Sciatica.
- Journal of Physiotherapy. Physiotherapy management of sciatica.
- World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Efficacy of yogasana in the management of sciatica.
- NHS. Exercises for sciatica problems.
Show all references
- Journal of Physical Therapy Science. The effects of self-mobilization for the sciatic nerves on physical functions and health of low back pain patients with lower limb radiating pain.