FAQ About COVID-19 Vaccines Available in the US

Find out up-to-date information about Covid-19 vaccines, which you can get in the US. A more detailed explanation of vaccine protection, risks, and segmentation on all age groups. Choose the best option out of all the listed vaccines below and protect yourself from complications or even death.

Primary SeriesDoses neededWho can get itEffectiveness against hospitalization
Pfizer3 - ages 6 months through 4 years
2 – ages >4 years
6 months and older>70% of infants <6 months (maternal vaccination).
73-94% of children and adolescents after 2 doses.
65% of adults after 2 doses; 86% after 3 doses.
Moderna3 - ages 6 months through 5 years
2 – ages >5 years
6 months and older>70% of infants <6 months (maternal vaccination).
73-94% of children and adolescents after 2 doses.
65% of adults after 2 doses; 86% after 3 doses.
Novavax212 years and older90% adolescents.
80% adults.
Janssen118 years and older78% Janssen + 1 mRNA dose.

Which Covid-19 vaccines can be found in the US?

There are three types of Covid-19 vaccines to choose from across the United States:

The mRNA products from Pfizer-BioNTech (Comirnaty) and Moderna (Spikevax) (available for ages 6 months and older).

The protein subunit vaccine by Novavax (available for ages 12 and older).

The viral vector vaccine by Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) (available for adults age 18 years and older).

How many doses are needed?

According to the latest recommendations, for infants ages 6 months through 4 (Pfizer) or 5 (Moderna) years of age, the primary series is three mRNA doses.

For older children and adults, the primary series is two doses for the mRNA and Novavax vaccines, and a single dose for Janssen, if the age is over 18.

However, the CDC recommends a second dose of an mRNA vaccine for those who received Janssen for their primary series.

How well do vaccines protect against COVID-19 infection and hospitalization?

The effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against infection wanes rapidly, typically within about 90 days, but protection against serious diseases requiring hospitalization remains high (over 74%).

What are the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines?

All COVID-19 vaccines might give mild side effects after the first vaccination, which could last up to a week. It can have an impact on the daily activities of a person or be a slight discomfort. Anyway, we recommend planning an easy work week before taking the vaccine.

More common side effects throughout the body (like fever, chills, tiredness, and headache)) have been noticed after the second dose of a Pfizer-BioTech, Moderna, or Novavax Covid-19 vaccine.

Rare side effects of Covid-19 vaccines could be severe allergic reactions and myocarditis and pericarditis related to mRNA and Novavax vaccination.

There were 4 cases per million reported when after Janssen’s Johnson and Johnson vaccination, thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome, or TTS occurred and resulted in death. Therefore, other Covid-19 vaccines than the J&J/Janssen vaccine are chosen by the majority.

Why don't vaccines save us from infection?

The COVID-19 vaccines are working as they should—allowing the body to prepare defenses against serious illness even though we may get sick. To understand how this works, we should distinguish between the words infection and disease.

Many viruses — such as SARS-CoV-2 — and bacteria are capable of entering our body through the nose and mouth, but they never cause symptoms. COVID-19 is the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.

The COVID-19 vaccines ramp up the immune system to prevent the virus from attacking vital organs like the heart and lungs. When antibodies wane, you may get symptoms of COVID-19, but remain protected against serious illness. This is why the CDC recommends those who are at high risk of serious disease stay up to date on COVID-19 vaccines.

All in all, there are three types of vaccination with 4 approved vaccines, which can be used for protection against COVID-19 in the US.

We hope it will help you to decide on which vaccine to choose from. Stay safe!

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