Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder and poorly understood disease process characterized by extreme Fatigue that underlying medical conditions cannot explain. There are many similarities between chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and aging. Both can involve physical and mental fatigue, changes in mood and energy levels, and difficulties with concentration and memory. However, there are also some important differences. Let’s take a closer look at examining the difference between chronic fatigue and normal aging.
CFS is also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) or systemic exertion intolerance disease (SEID).
There's no single test to diagnose CFS. After ruling out other conditions that could cause your symptoms, a diagnosis is made.
CFS can occur at any age, but it's most common in adults between 40 and 60.
Women are more likely to be diagnosed with CFS than men.
80% of people with CFS are undiagnosed and have not received treatment.
While there's no cure for CFS, treatments can help manage your symptoms.
What's the difference between normal aging and CFS?
As we age, our bodies change. We don't have the same muscle mass or bone density as we did when we were younger. Our metabolism slows down, and we don't process nutrients as efficiently. These changes can lead to Fatigue. Normal aging also comes with lifestyle changes that can contribute to Fatigue. For example, you may not be as active as you once were. Or you may have more responsibilities, such as caring for grandchildren or an elderly parent.
How is chronic fatigue syndrome different from normal aging?
CFS is different from normal aging because it's not a natural process. As people age, they may start to experience a variety of physical and mental changes. These changes are a normal part of the aging process and can include everything from wrinkles and gray hair to a decreased ability to hear, see and remember. While some of these changes can be frustrating, there is no need to worry. Older adults can still live full and active lives with a few adjustments. For example, many adults over the age of 65 find that they need to wear reading glasses to see clearly. But this does not mean they must give up their favorite hobbies or activities. Several minor corrective surgeries can help improve vision; many people find that they adjust quickly to wearing glasses.
Similarly, many adults lose some of their hearing as they age. But some devices, such as hearing aids, can help improve hearing. Some strategies can help hard-of-hearing people stay engaged in conversations, such as sitting close to the person speaking or repeating what was said. In short, while aging can bring some challenges, there are also ways to overcome these challenges and live a full and active life.
Causes of chronic fatigue syndrome
CFS is a complex disorder with many potential causes. The exact cause of CFS is unknown, but it's thought to be the result of a combination of factors, including:
- A viral infection, such as Epstein-Barr virus or human herpesvirus 6
- Immune system dysfunction
- Hormonal imbalances
- Nutritional deficiencies
- Sleep disorders
- Psychological stressors
Symptoms of CFS
CFS can cause a variety of symptoms that make it difficult to function normally. The most common symptom is Fatigue, which isn't relieved by rest. In addition to the primary symptom of post-exertional Fatigue, various neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal manifestations have been associated with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). These include but are not limited to cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, sleep disturbance, muscle pain, and gastrointestinal problems. Many patients also report systemic inflammation and immune dysfunction. CFS symptoms can vary in severity. Some people may have mild symptoms that don't interfere with their everyday lives. Others may be bedridden and unable to care for themselves. Other symptoms include:
- Muscle and joint pain
- Memory problems or difficulty concentrating
- Increased sensitivities to noise, light, and odors
- Depression or anxiety
When to see a doctor?
See your doctor if you're frequently feeling tired and your Fatigue isn't relieved by rest. Your doctor can rule out other conditions causing your Fatigue, such as anemia or thyroid problems.
A diagnosis of CFS is made after ruling out other conditions and after you've had symptoms for at least six months. There's no single test to diagnose CFS. Instead, a diagnosis is made based on your symptoms and medical history. Your doctor may also ask you to keep a fatigue diary to track your symptoms. This can help your doctor eliminate other conditions and determine the best course of treatment.
Treatment for CFS
Treatment is focused on symptom management and typically includes a combination of lifestyle modifications, pharmaceutical interventions, and psychological support. There is no cure for ME/CFS, but patients can often find significant relief from their symptoms with proper management. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and improving quality of life. Treatment may include:
- Medications to relieve pain, headaches, and sleep problems.
- Counseling to manage stress and emotional difficulties.
- Exercise and physical therapy to increase energy levels.
- Nutrition counseling to ensure you're getting the nutrients you need.
Most people with CFS can find some relief with these treatments. However, there's no one-size-fits-all approach to treatment. What works for one person may not work for another. Finding what works best for you may take some trial and error.
Living with CFS
CFS can be a difficult and frustrating condition to live with. Fatigue and other symptoms can make it hard to do what you enjoy. You may need to make lifestyle changes, such as cutting back on work or reducing your social activities. It's important to pace yourself and not push yourself too hard. Overdoing it can make your symptoms worse. Taking small steps and setting realistic goals can help you cope with CFS. Support groups can also be helpful. Connecting with others who understand what you're going through can provide support and encouragement. Your local community or online message boards are good places to start.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder with many potential causes, but there is hope. Contact your provider if you have symptoms that may be linked to CFS.
- Journal of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Treatment. Demystifying Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis - A Systematic Review.
- MDPI. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review.
- BMC Psychology. Rethinking the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome—a reanalysis and evaluation of findings from a recent major trial of graded exercise and CBT.