Artificial sweeteners have emerged as popular alternatives to high-sugar foods and beverages, driven by concerns about the potential health risks associated with excessive sugar consumption. However, using artificial sweeteners remains a topic of debate among experts. In line with this discussion, Prof. David Sinclair shares his opinion on the relative impact of sugar and artificial sweeteners on health.
Excessive sugar intake can lead to chronically elevated blood sugar levels and insulin resistance, accelerating the aging process and increasing the risk of chronic diseases.
Low insulin levels activate longevity genes, while high insulin levels from continuous sugar consumption inhibit their activation.
Artificial sweeteners are seen as alternatives by being less harmful than sugar.
It's important to be aware of the potential impact of artificial sweeteners on gut microbiota, the possibility of overconsumption, and ongoing safety concerns.
David Sinclair is an esteemed biologist and professor renowned for his groundbreaking research on aging and longevity. Sinclair currently holds a tenured professorship at Harvard Medical School. Sinclair's pioneering work centers on unraveling the mechanisms underlying the aging process while exploring strategies to delay or reverse it.
Because of the close relationship between nutrition and aging, Prof. Sinclair has groundbreaking words about "how we slower aging through nutrition?" He expresses, "You can have a bigger impact on your life than any genes give you. 80% is epigenetic, not genetic." This means even if you have genetic disadvantages for some diseases, you can overcome them through environmental factors which drive your lifestyle.
"You can have a bigger impact on your life than any genes give you. 80% is epigenetic, not genetic."David Sinclair
How sugar affects our health
Sugar consumption and its effects on insulin play a significant role in aging. When we consume sugary foods and beverages, our blood sugar levels rise. In response, our pancreas releases insulin to help transport glucose from the bloodstream into our cells for energy.
However, excessive sugar consumption over time can lead to chronically elevated blood sugar levels. This continuous spike in blood sugar triggers the release of more insulin to compensate. The persistent presence of high insulin levels can contribute to insulin resistance, where our cells become less responsive to insulin's effects.
How elevated blood sugar and insulin influence aging
Prof. Sinclair discussed blood sugar and insulin levels' effects on the human body and aging on the Andrew Huberman podcast.
"Low levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factors turn on the longevity genes. Having a high level of insulin all day means your longevity genes are not switched on."Andrew Huberman
This is important information because longevity genes are the special locus of our genome, of which activation helps us to live longer. However, insulin signals inhibit the activation of these genes in addition to directly harming our cell livability.
The consumption of foods and beverages with high sugar content, which has increased in recent years, not only increases chronic diseases, such as obesity, heart problems, and diabetes but also accelerates aging. For this reason, artificial sweeteners have taken the stage to reduce this sugar and insulin load in the body.
Can artificial sweeteners help?
Yes, artificial sweeteners can be an alternative to sugar and may have certain advantages.
Prof. Sinclair compares sugar and artificial sweeteners and says, "If I were to put a number on it, I would say if eating a high-sugar meal or drinking a sugar-filled soda — what is that, 30 grams of sugar — let's say that's a 10/10 bad for you, a Diet Coke might be a 1."
When compared to excessive sugar intake, artificial sweeteners may provide some advantages, including the following:
- Blood sugar and insulin control. Unlike sugar, which gets broken down into glucose and rapidly raises blood sugar levels, artificial sweeteners are either not metabolized or are metabolized in minimal amounts. As a result, they do not trigger a significant insulin release, helping maintain stable blood sugar levels.
- Calorie reduction. Artificial sweeteners are often very low in or devoid of calories, which can benefit individuals aiming to manage their weight or reduce calorie intake. They provide sweetness without the added energy.
- Dental health. Artificial sweeteners, unlike sugar, are typically nonfermentable and, therefore, do not contribute to tooth decay.
However, let's dive into this "1" to learn what to be aware of while using artificial sweeteners.
Risks of artificial sweeteners
Concerns about artificial sweeteners include the following:
- Impact on gut microbiota. Emerging research suggests that artificial sweeteners may influence the composition and function of gut microbiota, which could have implications for gut health and metabolic processes. Also, it should be noted that a disrupted gut microbiome is closely related to many different metabolic and chronic diseases.
- Potential for overconsumption. Artificial sweeteners may lead to an increased desire for sweetness, potentially resulting in overconsumption of high-calorie foods.
- Safety concerns. The safety of artificial sweeteners has been a subject of debate. While approved artificial sweeteners are considered safe for consumption within acceptable daily intake levels, concerns have been raised about potential long-term effects on chronic diseases.
Artificial sweeteners have emerged as popular alternatives to high-sugar foods and beverages due to concerns about excessive sugar consumption. Although they can help maintain steadier blood sugar levels, control insulin, and balance caloric intake, Prof. Sinclair warns they may also alter the gut microbiome and affect insulin sensitivity over time. Therefore, it's essential to be aware of the potential impact on health and safety concerns. As with any dietary choice, moderation is key.
- Frontiers in Nutrition. Non-nutritive sweeteners and their impacts on the gut microbiome and host physiology.
- Nutrients. Is the Use of Artificial Sweeteners Beneficial for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus? The Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Sweeteners.
- Cleveland Clinic. Insulin Resistance.