Ultra-processed foods, as classified under the NOVA system, are highly associated with negative health outcomes. The NOVA classification system provides a framework for understanding the different levels of food processing and has been widely adopted by researchers, policymakers, and public health professionals. In this article, we'll delve deeper into ultra-processed foods, examining their characteristics, prevalence, and potential impacts on health.
A framework for classifying processed foods known as NOVA is used by researchers and public health professionals worldwide.
There are four main classifications of processed foods: unprocessed/minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods.
Ultra-processed foods lack nutritional value and are linked to obesity, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions.
Disease prevention related to ultra-processed foods would require many variables like policy changes, early food education, and behavior modification toward cooking whole-food meals more often.
What is NOVA
The NOVA classification system is a framework developed by researchers to categorize food products based on their degree of processing. It aims to provide a clear and practical approach to classifying foods rather than focusing on specific nutrients. The NOVA classification system consists of four main categories, with ultra-processed foods being one of them.
Researchers, public health professionals, and policymakers widely use the NOVA classification system to understand the impact of different types of food on health outcomes. For example, an Oxford Academic journal, Current Developments in Nutrition, explains, “The strategy of the NOVA group is to recommend that ultra-processed foods should be avoided.” The NOVA classification system helps highlight the potential negative effects associated with consuming ultra-processed foods, often linked to increased risks of obesity, heart disease, and other chronic health conditions.
There are four main classifications of processed foods:
- Unprocessed/minimally processed
- Processed culinary ingredient
- Processed foods
- Ultra-processed foods
For the sake of this article, we will focus on ultra-processed foods as these are the most concerning in terms of their negative impacts on health.
Ultra-processed foods, the highest category in the NOVA classification, are defined by their extensive processing and formulation with industrial ingredients. They often contain additives, preservatives, and artificial flavors to enhance taste, texture, and shelf life. These foods are typically convenient, ready-to-eat, and heavily marketed by the food industry.
One of the key characteristics of ultra-processed foods is their lack of resemblance to whole, minimally processed foods. They undergo multiple processing steps involving industrial techniques, such as extrusion, hydrogenation, and hydrolysis, to transform raw ingredients into the final product. As a result, they are often highly palatable, hyper-palatable even, and may contain excessive amounts of added sugars, unhealthy fats, and sodium.
Studies have shown that ultra-processed foods constitute a significant proportion of the modern diet in many countries. For instance, a study by The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition revealed that ultra-processed foods accounted for nearly 60% of total energy intake among adults. Similar trends have been observed in other high-income countries and in middle- and low-income countries undergoing nutritional transitions.
Link to disease
The consumption of ultra-processed foods has raised concerns due to its potential impact on health. Numerous studies have linked the regular intake of these foods with adverse health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.
For example, the British Journal of Nutrition found that “increased UPF [ultra-processed foods] consumption was associated with a worse cardiometabolic risk profile and a higher risk of cerebrovascular disease (CVD), depression, and all-cause mortality.” One of the primary reasons behind these associations is the nutrient composition of ultra-processed foods.
Nutritional impacts of UPF
Ultra-processed foods are energy-dense, meaning they are high in calories relative to weight. In addition, they often contain added sugars, unhealthy fats, and sodium while lacking essential nutrients such as fiber, vitamins, and minerals. The excessive calorie intake associated with ultra-processed foods can contribute to weight gain and obesity paired with micronutrient deficiencies, major risk factors for various chronic diseases.
It is important to note that the negative health outcomes associated with ultra-processed foods are not solely attributed to their nutrient composition. The processing methods used in their production may also play a role. For instance, certain industrial techniques can alter the structure of food components, leading to changes in their digestion and absorption patterns. These alterations can affect satiety, hunger regulation, and nutrient bioavailability, potentially contributing to overeating and nutrient deficiencies.
Addressing the issue of ultra-processed foods requires a multi-faceted approach. Policymakers play a crucial role in creating an environment that promotes healthier food choices. Measures such as food labeling regulations, restrictions on marketing to children, and taxation on sugary beverages have been implemented in some countries to discourage the consumption of ultra-processed foods and encourage the consumption of healthier alternatives.
Additionally, efforts should be made to improve nutrition education and food literacy among individuals. Providing clear and accurate information about the impact of ultra-processed foods on health can empower people to make informed choices and adopt healthier eating patterns. Encouraging the consumption of whole, minimally processed foods and home-cooked meals can also be promoted through education and awareness campaigns.
The food industry has a role in reformulating products to reduce their levels of added sugars, unhealthy fats, and sodium. In addition, increasing the availability and accessibility of healthier food options in the market can help shift consumer preferences towards more nutritious choices.
The NOVA classification system provides a valuable framework for understanding the different levels of food processing, with ultra-processed foods representing the most heavily processed category. The prevalence of these foods in the global food supply, coupled with their negative health associations, raises concerns about their impact on public health. Addressing the consumption of ultra-processed foods requires concerted efforts from policymakers, the food industry, and individuals. By promoting whole, minimally processed foods and improving nutrition education, we can work towards creating a healthier food environment and reducing the burden of diet-related diseases.
- Public Health Nutrition. Ultra-processed foods: what they are and how to identify them.
- The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Ultra-processed food consumption among US adults from 2001 to 2018.
- Foods. Consumers’ Understanding of Ultra-Processed Foods.
- British Journal of Nutrition. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Current Developments in Nutrition. Ultra-Processed Foods: Definitions and Policy Issues.
Show all references
- European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Ultra-processed foods: how functional is the NOVA system?
- Public Health Nutrition. The UN Decade of Nutrition, the NOVA food classification and the trouble with ultra-processing.