Magnesium Threonate, Malate, Taurate: Each Magnesium Type Explained

Magnesium is one of the most important minerals your body needs to function properly. In fact, magnesium is present in every single cell in your body and used in hundreds of biochemical reactions to keep you healthy. However, even though it’s an important nutrient, many people are not meeting their recommended intake, so you might want to consider taking a magnesium supplement.

Key takeaways:
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    Magnesium is one of the most abundant minerals in your body and is necessary for hundreds of roles. Unfortunately, magnesium insufficiency is very common, which means that magnesium supplements may be necessary.
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    There are several types of magnesium supplements, including threonate, malate, taurate, citrate, and bisglycinate. Each is absorbed differently in the body and plays specific roles in managing pain, promoting heart health, managing anxiety, and more.
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    Talk to your doctor before starting any supplement, including magnesium, to ensure you’re using the best one for your needs.

In this article, we’ll discuss the different forms of magnesium available and help you determine the right magnesium type for your needs.

Should you take a magnesium supplement?

Dietary magnesium can be found in a variety of foods, including leafy greens, whole grains, seeds, and nuts. However, diet alone might not always be enough to ensure that you’re meeting your body’s magnesium needs.

Surveys conducted around the world have concluded that many populations are not getting enough magnesium to meet their needs. Even in the United States, it’s estimated that almost half of adults aren’t getting enough magnesium.

Specific groups are also especially at risk of magnesium deficiencies, including:

  • People with gastrointestinal diseases that inhibit nutrition absorption
  • People with type 2 diabetes
  • People with alcohol dependence
  • Older adults

Because of this, magnesium supplements are a popular method of increasing your blood magnesium levels. Magnesium supplements are also well-researched, and many scientists and health experts agree that the addition of magnesium to your diet has the potential for a wide range of health benefits, including:

  • Promoting relaxation and sleep
  • Maintaining bone health
  • Reducing migraines and headaches
  • Alleviating symptoms of preeclampsia and premenstrual syndrome
  • Maintaining normal heart rates
  • Treatment for mood disorders like depression and anxiety

The different magnesium types and how they differ

Depending on your current diet and health status, you may need a magnesium supplement to meet your nutritional requirements. However, if you’ve ever tried to shop for magnesium supplements, you’ve probably been met with a ton of different options, which can get confusing.

Here are the key differences between the kinds of magnesium and how they are most commonly used.

Magnesium threonate

Magnesium L-Threonate (magnesium threonate for short) is a synthesized form of magnesium mixed with threonic acid, creating a salt.

This form of magnesium is thought to cross the blood-brain barrier more easily than other forms of magnesium, which means that it can be used to raise magnesium levels in the brain more quickly. In addition, animal studies have found that magnesium threonate may be useful for enhancing various cognitive functions, including learning and memory.

Magnesium malate

Magnesium malate is a combination of magnesium and malic acid, a type of acid found in various fruits and vegetables. Some studies have found that magnesium malate is the most bioavailable form of magnesium compared to others, which means that your body can use more of it than other forms.

Because malic acid is sometimes used to reduce muscle pain and fatigue, magnesium malate is sometimes used for relieving pain in chronic conditions like fibromyalgia. However, the research here is still fairly inconclusive.

Magnesium taurate

Magnesium taurate is created by bonding magnesium to taurine, an amino acid.

Taurine is thought to have anti-inflammatory properties that are sometimes linked to protection against cardiovascular conditions. As such, a magnesium taurate supplement is a good option if your goals are to reduce blood pressure and protect against heart disease. There’s also some evidence that magnesium taurate may be helpful for improving insulin sensitivity in subjects with diabetes.

Magnesium citrate

Magnesium citrate is created by bonding magnesium to citric acid, an organic compound often found in citrus fruits. Magnesium citrate is considered one of the most bioavailable forms of magnesium supplements.

This form of magnesium is often used as a laxative to relieve constipation, since it can increase the amount of water retained in the colon. Additionally, magnesium citrate may improve sleep quality and reduce anxiety in some people.

Magnesium bisglycinate

Magnesium bisglycinate (sometimes shortened to magnesium glycinate) is a form of chelated magnesium, meaning that it is combined with an amino acid called glycine.

Magnesium bisglycinate is most commonly used to reduce anxiety and depression and promote relaxation. This form of magnesium is also easily digested, which may make it a better choice for people with sensitive stomachs when comparing forms like magnesium glycinate vs citrate.

Which magnesium form is right for me?

The best form of magnesium for you will depend on your goals.

If your goals are to take magnesium to improve sleep, boost mood and energy levels, and/or improve cognitive functioning, your best bets are:

  • Magnesium bisglycinate
  • Magnesium citrate
  • Magnesium threonate

If you want to use magnesium as a laxative to promote a healthy and regular digestive system, you may want to use:

  • Magnesium citrate

If you’re using magnesium to regulate your blood sugar and/or support heart health:

  • Magnesium taurate

If you want to add magnesium to your diet to better manage pain:

  • Magnesium malate

For fighting fatigue and brain fog:

  • Magnesium threonate
  • Magnesium malate

What are normal magnesium levels?

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of magnesium is:

Adult men400–420 mg of magnesium per day
Adult women310–320 mg of magnesium per day

Your magnesium needs may also increase if you are pregnant or nursing. For example:

Pregnant womenBetween 350–400 mg of magnesium per day
Lactating womenBetween 310-360 mg of magnesium per day

How to know if you have a magnesium deficiency

If you aren’t getting sufficient magnesium in your diet, you may experience some signs of insufficiency, including:

  • Heart arrhythmia
  • Muscle cramping or pain
  • Mood disorders like anxiety and depression

At worst, prolonged insufficient levels of magnesium can lead to magnesium deficiency. While rare, magnesium deficiencies can be serious. Some signs of a magnesium deficiency include:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Muscle spasms or tremors
  • Weakened bones
  • Nervousness
  • Bad headaches

If you experience any of these serious symptoms of a magnesium deficiency, you should consult with a doctor immediately to test your magnesium levels and to determine a medical course of action.

Why You Should Consider Taking More Than One Form of Magnesium

Because different magnesium supplements target different health concerns, you might consider taking more than one. For example, if you’re struggling to get a good night’s sleep but also are dealing with aches and pain, you might consider taking both magnesium bisglycinate for relaxation and magnesium malate for pain relief.

It’s very important to note that you can also overdose on magnesium. Read labels to ensure that you aren’t getting more than 350 mg of magnesium a day from supplements, making sure to account for the amount of magnesium that you may get from food sources as well. Finally, it’s best to talk to a doctor before starting any dietary supplement to ensure that you’re getting the right amount of nutrients.



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